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Peptides - What you should know

by Skin Science |

What Are Skincare Peptides?

Peptides are short chains of between 2-50 amino acids, linked by peptide bonds. Chains of less than 15 amino acids are called Oligopeptides, such as dipeptides, tripeptides, and tetrapeptides.

Peptides can be scientifically formulated for topical application, and are usually derived from natural sources, synthesised and isolated to target specific skin concerns. Skincare peptides are seen in many cosmetic skin products, due to the high costs, they are mostly used in low concentration in anti-ageing products, and most peptides in cosmetic brands are of the similar chains of amino acids, with sources ranged from animals, plants to marine sources. High quality peptides are usually from marine sources, such as Phytotides in Phytogen series.

 no face phytotide peptide skin

What do Skincare Peptides Do ?

Directing hydration and nutrients

Skincare peptides are a part of the healthy skin to keep the healthy skin structure in place. Skin absorption rate of products depend on different amino acids that form the skin peptides. When the skin is young and healthy, skin peptides are less damaged and can help the skin distribute hydration and nutrients evenly across different layers and create a healthy skin glow. Healthy hydration with nutrients is essential to the skin's normal functionalities, and once these functionalities become compromised due to UV and environmental damages, the skin accelerates its ageing process and become prone to various skin issues.

 

Peptides and Wrinkle Reduction 

Researches have shown that peptides can actually reduce wrinkles through reversing signs of ageing, through stimulating the skin's basement membrane (BM) proteins. 

Science: The dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) provides a physical and biological interface between the epidermis and the dermis. In addition to providing a structural integrity, the DEJ also acts as a passageway for molecular transport. Based on the recently reported importance of the DEJ in skin aging, novel peptide derivatives have been tested for their effects on basement membrane (BM) protein expressions in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. As a result, protein expressions of collagen XVII, laminin and nidogen were stimulated by the test peptide and peptides complex.

Clinical Study: The clinical study was performed on 22 Asian female subjects with facial wrinkles, aged from 40 to 60 years. All studies complied with the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki (2013) concerning biomedical research involving human subjects. Female healthy volunteers without any skin or systemic diseases were initially enrolled for the study. Facial wrinkles in five areas (crow’s feet, nasolabial fold, glabella frown lines, horizontal forehead lines and horizontal neck lines) were measured by a topographic skin measurement device (Antera 3D CS: Miravex Ltd., Ireland). The participants were administrated to use test products containing peptide complex twice a day (morning and day) for two weeks. The participants were also asked neither to use any cosmetics containing ingredients that could potentially interfere with skin wrinkle status during the study period, nor to have any extensive exposure to direct sunlight. After two weeks of usage, 3D skin images were taken again, and image analysis was performed to calculate the change of their skin wrinkles.

For the crow’ feet analysis, the saved images were transformed into a large wrinkle mode (10.7 mm diameter) and glabella frown line, forehead and neck lines were also analyzed using a large wrinkle mode (24.0 mm diameter). The maximum depth values within the circular analysis area were taken as the wrinkle-representing values, and the percentage reduction of those values before and after their application were calculated as the percentage improvement of skin wrinkles. For the nasolabial fold, the saved images were transformed into the large wrinkle mode at distinct areas, and the maximum depth values were measured.

Conclusion: In this study, peptides complex stimulating skin basement membrane proteins expression was developed and the anti-wrinkle benefits of the peptides complex was investigated in vitro and ex vivo. Clinical efficacy of peptide complex as anti-wrinkle cosmetic ingredient was also confirmed.

In other double blinded published researches, collagen-like peptides are also observed to be reducing wrinkles in clinical studies. The studies show that the effect of the collagen-like peptide on reducing the total and average length of wrinkles was also remarkable. This effect was statistically highly significant (p < 0.003) and was observed in 75% to 80% of the replicas. Moreover these results were supported by volunteer questionnaires and clinical observation. The results demonstrate that the collagen-like peptide acts deeply and intensely on wrinkles; these properties are of great interest in the field of anti aging skin care research.

To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a novel line treatment for periocular and perioral wrinkles, researchers demonstrated that the line of treatments are well tolerated and provided both immediate and long-term improvements in the appearance of fine and coarse wrinkles.

Phytotide 900 contained in Phytogen 900 contains collagen-like peptides to scientifically reduce signs of ageing and wrinkles.

 

Pore Enlargement 

Pore issues are usually signs of ageing caused either naturally or by the environment, including UVA, UVB, chemicals in the air, water and other pollutants. Micro-inflammation can cause long term cellular damage and compromise the skin's natural healing abilities, along with Glycation, the skin's collagen starts to break down, the skin appears to be more saggy, dull, course in texture and pores enlarged. Formulated skin peptides can target the damage causing factors and create an environment for the skin to heal and repair naturally, and therefore reverse the signs of those damages, and once the underlying issues are targeted and improved over time, pore enlargement becomes visibly reduced.

Peptides to target pore issues include Phytotide P3 and L6 

 

Redness

Skin redness could be from long term UV damage and sensitivity caused by cosmetic products containing fragrance and harsh chemicals. Redness can be signs of inflammation and result in hyperpigmentation and permanent melanin formation, as well as acceleration of skin ageing. Certain peptides can act as vehicles to transport nutrients and complexes effectively to metabolise and reduce the signs of redness and skin damage. 

Phytotide IG provides the skin with essential peptides to combat sensitising environmental factors to minimise skin sensitivity and redness.

Phytotide 98 targets the signs of redness and help protect the cellular walls to form a strong barrier against damaging factors. 

 

Hydration for Oily Skin 

Hydrophilic and lipophilic properties should both be used for hydrating oily skin types, as oily skin types are often having sebum congestion issues that are compromising the skin's ability for hydration absorption, and many cosmetic products aren't formulated in ways to help congested skin types to absorb hydration, even with the proper ingredients, lack of absorption and penetration can cause property buildup on top of pore congestion, leading to more inflammation. 

Oil balancing properties should also be used combined with hydrating properties. Unlike salicylic acid, peptides don't cause skin irritation, and only act like vehicles to direct the skin to properly function without causing damage or photo sensitivity.

Phytotide 89 is specifically formulated for congested and oily skin types to provide both hydrophilic and lipophilic hydrating properties to soothe and hydrate the blemished skin. 

 

phytotide no face peptide

 

 Research

  1. Newton V.L., Bradley R.S., Seroul P., Cherel M., Griffiths C.E.M., Rawlings A.V., Voegeli R., Watson R.E.B., Sherratt M.J. Novel approaches to characterize age-related remodelling of the dermal-epidermal junction in 2D, 3D and in vivo. Skin Res. Technol. 2017;23:131–148. doi: 10.1111/srt.12312. 
  2. Amano S. Characterization and mechanisms of photoageing-related changes in skin. Damages of basement membrane and dermal structures. Exp. Dermatol. 2016;25:14–19. doi: 10.1111/exd.13085. 
  3. Amano S. Possible Involvement of Basement Membrane Damage in Skin Photoaging. J. Invest. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 2009;14:2–7. doi: 10.1038/jidsymp.2009.5. 
  4. Choi E.H. Aging of the skin barrier. Clin. Dermatol. 2019;37:336–345. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.04.009.
  5. Role of topical peptides in preventing or treating aged skin. Gorouhi F, Maibach HI.Int J Cosmet Sci. 2009 Oct;31(5):327-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2009.00490.x. Epub 2009 Jun 30.PMID: 19570099 
  6. Uitto J. The role of elastin and collagen in cutaneous aging: intrinsic aging versus photoexposure. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008;7(2):S12–16
  7. Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF. Reversal of photodamage with topical growth factors: a pilot study. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2003;5:25–34.